Bladder stones: Bladder stones are hard lumps of minerals that can form inside the bladder when it's not completely empty of urine. They may not cause any symptoms if they're small enough to be passed out of the bladder when you pee. However, most people with bladder stones do experience symptoms because the stones either irritate the wall of the bladder or block the flow of urine. Surgery is usually needed to remove the stones from the bladder. The most common procedure is a cystolitholapaxy, where a thin tube (cystoscope) with a camera at the end is used to find the bladder stones. The cystoscope will then use 'stone-crushing' devices, lasers or ultrasound to break up the stones before they're removed.
Kidney Infection: Kidney infection is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that generally begins in your urethra or bladder and travels to one or both of your kidneys. Symptoms could include fever, Chills, back pain, abdominal pain, frequent urination, nausea and vomitting. The main cause is a bacterial infection. It is treated with antibiotics.
Kidney Stones: Kidney stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. Symptoms include severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs, pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin, pain on urination, and persistent need to urinate. Treating kidney stones is primarily focused on symptom management. Passing a stone can be very painful.
Treatment: Narcotics are often used in an effort to make the pain of passing the stone tolerable. Antiemetic medication can be used in people experiencing nausea and vomiting. In some cases, the urologist can perform a shock wave therapy called lithotripsy. This is a treatment that breaks the kidney stone into smaller pieces and allow it to pass. People with large stones located in regions that do not allow for lithotripsy may receive surgical procedures, such as removal of the stone via an incision in the back or by inserting a thin tube into the urethra.
Urethral Stricture: Any inflammation of the urethra resulting from injury, trauma, previous surgery, or infection can cause urethral stricture. Symptoms of urethral stricture can range from no symptoms at all to complete urinary retention. Imaging studies and endoscopic evaluations are important tools in the diagnosis of urethral stricture. Urethral Dialation Surgery is the recommended treatment for individuals with symptomatic urethral strictures.
Diagnostic & Treatment procedures
Kegel Exercises: Kegel exercises strengthen the pelvic floor muscles, which support the uterus, bladder, small intestine and rectum. A Kegel exercise is like pretending you have to urinate and then holding it. You relax and tighten the muscles that control urine flow. It is important to find the right muscles to tighten.
It could help if you:
Kidney Ultrasound: A kidney ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic exam that produces images, which are used to assess the size, shape, and location of the kidneys. Ultrasound may also be used to assess blood flow to the kidneys.Ultrasound can detect cysts, tumors, abscesses, obstructions, fluid collection, and infection within or around the kidneys. Calculi (stones) of the kidneys and ureters may be detected by ultrasound. Kidney ultrasound may be used after a kidney transplant to evaluate the transplanted kidney.
Meatal Stenosis/ Meatotomy: Meatal stenosis is a common urologic complication after circumcision. Common complaints include deviated urinary stream, difficult-to-aim, painful urination, and urinary frequency. Meatotomy or meatoplasty is the definitive treatment for meatal stenosis. Meatotomy is a simple procedure in which the ventrum of the meatus is crushed for 60 seconds with a straight clamp and then divided with fine-tipped scissors.
Cystoscopy: A cystoscope is a thin tube with a camera and light on the end. During a cystoscopy, a doctor inserts this tube through your urethra (the tube that carries urine out of your bladder) and into your bladder so they can visualize the inside of your bladder. Magnified images from the camera are displayed on a screen. It helps to diagnose the below conditions
Ureteroscopy: It is a procedure in which a small scope (like a flexible telescope) is inserted into the bladder and ureter and it is used to diagnose and treat a variety of problems in the urinary tract. For ureteral stones, it allows the urologist to actually look into the ureter, find the stone and remove it.
Laparoscopic Nephrectomy: Laparoscopic Nephrectomy provides patients with a safe and effective way to remove a diseased or cancerous kidney. Laparosopic nephrectomy is a minimally invasive technique, which provides patients with less discomfort and equivalent results when compared to the larger incision required with traditional open surgery. When compared to conventional open surgery, laparoscopic nephrectomy has resulted in significantly less post-operative pain, a shorter hospital stay, earlier return to work and daily activities, a more favorable cosmetic result and outcomes identical to that of open surgery.
Laparoscopic Prostatectomy: Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a minimally invasive surgery procedure used to remove a patient's cancerous prostate. Laparoscopic surgery differs from traditional open surgery by making five small incisions as opposed to one large one to perform the surgery. This leads to less abdominal trauma, better cosmetic outcomes, and typically a faster recovery process.
Male reproductive system surgeries
Radical prostatectomy: A radical prostatectomy is an operation to remove the prostate gland and some of the tissue around it. It is done to remove prostate cancer. This operation may be done by open surgery. Or it may be done by laparoscopic surgery through small incisions. In open surgery, the surgeon makes an incision to reach the prostate gland. Depending on the case, the incision is made either in the lower belly or in the perineum between the anus and the scrotum.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia: is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland, a common occurrence in older men. The prostate gland grows in size and it may compress the urethra which courses through the center of the prostate. This can impede the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra to the outside. It can cause urine to back up in the bladder (retention) leading to the need to urinate frequently during the day and night. Other common symptoms include a slow flow of urine, the need to urinate urgently and difficulty starting the urinary stream. More serious problems include urinary tract infections and complete blockage of the urethra, which may be a medical emergency and can lead injury to the kidneys.
Treatment included surgical procedures like Laser therapy to remove part of your prostate or transurethral resection of the prostate, or TURP, in which the doctor uses a scope and cuts out pieces of the gland with a wire loop.
Treatment of erectile dysfunction: The first thing your doctor will do is to make sure you're getting the right treatment for any health conditions that could be causing or worsening your erectile dysfunction. Oral medications, hormone supplements, Surgery and Implants are some of the modalities of treatment for this condition.
Vasectomy: This is a male contraceptive method. It is a minor operation where in the tubes that carry sperm from a man's testicles to the penis are cut, blocked or sealed. This prevents sperm from reaching the seminal fluid (semen), which is ejaculated from the penis during sex. There will be no sperm in the semen, so a woman's egg can't be fertilised. Vasectomy is usually carried out under local anaesthetic, and takes about 15 minutes. It is a quick and relatively painless surgical procedure.
Vasectomy Reversal: It is possible to have a vasectomy reversed. There are 2 methods. The first is through vasovasostomy, where your doctor sews the vas deferens from the testes to the penis back together. The second method is vasoepididymostomy. Here, the doctor attaches the vas deferens to the small organ at the back of each testicle that holds sperm. It’s far more difficult than a vasovasostomy. Your doctor may only choose this method if you can’t have a vasovasostomy or if he doesn’t think it will work.
Circumcision: Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin. The foreskin is the retractable fold of skin that covers the end of the penis. It's a continuation of the skin that covers the whole penis. This procedure is needed if there is inflammation of the foreskin, or inability to retract the foreskin. Circumcision is a relatively simple procedure. The foreskin is removed just behind the head of the penis using a scalpel or surgical scissors.
Circumcision revision: Circumcision revisions a second surgical procedure after a circumcision; performed due to unsatisfactory results with the original circumcision. A circumcision revision might be necessary for several reasons. The most common reason is that too much of the foreskin is left following a circumcision. This is called redundant foreskin. It can cause scar tissue to form as an infant grows and develops more fat in the area around the penis.
Genital Warts: Genital warts are soft growths that appear on the genitals. Genital warts are a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by certain strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV). These skin growths can cause pain, discomfort, and itching. They are especially dangerous for women because some types of HPV can also cause cancer of the cervix and vulva. Treatment include topical application, electrocautery, cryosurgery, laser treatment and surgical excision.
Orchiopexy: Surgery to move an undescended testicle into the scrotum is called orchiopexy or orchidopexy. It is usually performed on babies who are 9 to 15 months old. Depending on the location of the testicle, one or two small incisions are made in the scrotum, the groin, or the abdomen to allow the surgeon to reach the testicle and move it to the scrotum. Placing undescended testicles in the scrotum may help prevent infertility and may reduce the risk of testicular cancer. This surgery helps lower the risk of injury to the testicle. If the testicles are in the groin area, a boy has a higher risk for sports injuries and discomfort from seat belts.
Testicular Pain: The testicles are very sensitive, and even a minor injury can cause testicle pain or discomfort. Testicle pain might arise from within the testicle itself or from the coiled tube and supporting tissue behind the testicle. Causes can include diabetic neuropathy, drug side effect, inflammation, hernia, and various other reasons. Treatment is based on treating the symptoms and the underlying cause.
Testicular Torsion: Testicular torsion occurs when a testicle rotates, twisting the spermatic cord that brings blood to the scrotum. The reduced blood flow causes sudden and often severe pain and swelling. Testicular torsion usually requires emergency surgery. If treated quickly, the testicle can usually be saved. But when blood flow has been cut off for too long, a testicle might become so badly damaged that it has to be removed. Symptoms include sudden severe pain in the scrotum, swelling of the scrotum, abdominal pain, nausea and vomitting. A small incision is made in your scrotum to untwist the cord. Tiny sutures will be used to keep the testicle in place in the scrotum. This prevents rotation from occurring again. The surgeon then closes the incision with stitches.
Adult hydrocele: A hydrocele is a buildup of watery clear fluid around one or both testicles. It usually occurs in males over the age of 40 years. The possible causes of an Adult Hydrocele include trauma to the testes, infection or inflammation of the testes and scrotum, and tumor of the testes. The signs and symptoms of the condition include swelling of the scrotum and groin and uncomfortable heaviness of the testicles. In most cases, treatment of an Adult Hydrocele is not needed, as the swelling usually subsides on its own. In a few cases, though, surgery may be required to drain the fluid.
Varicocele: The scrotum is a skin-covered sac that holds your testicles. It also contains the arteries and veins that deliver blood to the reproductive glands. A vein abnormality in the scrotum may result in a varicocele. A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the scrotum. A varicocele can result in decreased sperm production and quality, which in some cases can lead to infertility. It can also shrink the testicles. Symptoms include a lump in one of your testicles, swelling in your scrotum, visibly enlarged or twisted veins in your scrotum, which are often described as looking like a bag of worms and a dull, recurring pain in your scrotum. Scrotal ultrasound is used to diagnose the condition. Treatment options are based on the degree of discomfort or infertility issues you have.
Varicocelectomy: is a same-day surgery where a urologist will go in through your abdomen or pelvis and clamp or tie off the abnormal veins. Blood can then flow around the abnormal veins to the normal ones.
Varicocele embolization: is a less invasive, same-day procedure where a small cat heter is inserted into a groin or neck vein. A coil is then placed into the catheter and into the varicocele. This blocks blood from getting to the abnormal veins.