Cystectomy is a surgical excision of an ovarian cyst. Ovarian cysts are small fluid-filled sacs that develop on the ovaries. Ovaries are the almond shaped organs located one on each side of the uterus. Once a month, during your menstrual cycle, a follicle forms on your ovary. A follicle is a fluid filled sac that contains an egg. Usually a follicle release mature egg from your ovary (ovulation). In some cases, if the follicle fails to rupture and release an egg, the fluid stays in the follicle and forms a cyst. This is called an ovarian cyst. Individuals with ovarian cysts often do not experience any however some women may experience pressure, swelling, pain in the abdomen, pain during intercourse and abnormal or unusually painful periods.
A laparoscopic cystectomy removes only the cyst leaving the ovaries intact. However, if the cyst is too large or connected to ovarian tissue, your surgeon removes all or part of the ovary. Laparotomy is an open surgical exploration of the abdomen to examine the organs of the abdomen. You will be administered general anaesthesia and a single, large cut is made through the abdominal wall. Then the abdominal muscles are separated to reach your ovary. In some cases the blood vessels supplying the ovary are clamped and tied off. Then the cyst is removed. Alternatively, samples of tissues may be removed for further analysis. If the cyst is cancerous, the doctor may need to take out the affected ovary. The abdominal muscles are sewed and the incision is closed with stitches.