Birthmarks and port-wine stains are discolorations or abnormalities that are caused by the overgrowth of blood vessels, smooth muscle, connective tissue, fat, or melanin or keratin-producing cells. These discolorations are red, brown, gray, or blue, and affect most of the babies. Some, such as the stork bite and the Mongolian spot, resolve by the time the child is between three to ten years old; others, such as the port-wine stain, do not go away with age and may even grow or thicken.
Other birth defects that can be resolved by cosmetic surgery are ear, hand, and skull abnormalities. Some babies are born with abnormally shaped heads (craniosynostosis), missing ears, or webbed fingers. Hypospadias the opening of the urethra in boys (the tube that carries urine out of the body) is on the underside of the penis. Reconstructive surgery gives these children a chance to have a normal life.